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91 olds 98 passkey fault how to bypass

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How to bypass the VATS (PASSKey II) system in a late model GM vehicle

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Pontiac 1994-1996 Grand Prix 1992-1999 Bonneville 1993-2002 Firebird/Trans Am/Firehawk Buick 1994-1996 Regal 1992-1999 LeSabre 1991-1996 Park Avenue 1991-1996 Roadmaster Oldsmobile 1994-1997 Cutlass Supreme 1992-1999 Eighty Eight/LSS/Ninety Eight/Regency 1991-1996 Custom Cruiser Wagon Chevrolet 1995-1999 Monte Carlo 1995-2001 Lumina 1993-2002 Camaro 1986(?)-1996 Corvette (C4) Cadillac How to bypass the VATS system in a late model GM vehicle Bullet-Style” solderless connectors Heat Shrink Tubing Resistors of varying values (totalling the resistance measured across the key’s “pellet”) Alright, let’s begin the madness: 1. Take your DMM, set it to measure Ohms (use the 20k setting.) Measure the resistance across the pellet of the ignition key. Place one probe on the silver part of one side of the pellet, and the other probe on the other side. Write this value down. 2. Purchase a resistor or resistors that add up to the value measured in step 1. Radio Shack is a great place to go for the resistors, heat shrink tubing, and the “bullet-style” solderless connectors. 3. Take the 16 ga. wire and cut into 2 four-inch pieces. 4. Strip off approx 1/16″ of insulation off each side of both wire pieces. 5. Put your resistors together in series (or if you’re lucky and have a chip that has a resistance that matches a single resistor) and solder one wire to one end of the resistor(s) and the other wire to the other side. Example: You measure 11.72 on the 20k (k meaning kilo or 1,000) scale. The closest match is 11.801 which is a #15 “chip.” Always remember that resistors have a tolerance of 2%, meaning the resistance value of the “pellet” can be either 2% higher or 2% lower than 11.801 k ohms (11.72 falls in tolerance range.) You will want to aim for 11,801 ohms. So when you go to Radio Shack you want to pick up a 10,000 ohm (10k,) a 1,000 ohm (1k,) and an 800 ohm resistors to wire together in series to achieve the 11.801k ohm value.

2003 BMW 525I 2.5L Check engine light on and fault codes stored Vehicle running normally

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1. Based upon stored fault codes for secondary air system, there is little or no flow of secondary air into engine. Typical causes for this issue are failed secondary air pumps and/or secondary air check valves. Secondary air pump should operate under normal circumstances when vehicle is first started to perform system test. Pump will normally be heard running when standing in front right corner of vehicle. 2. The secondary air pump is located in the right front of engine compartment. A secondary air pump relay located in the glove box is controlled by the engine control module and sends power to the secondary air pump. 3. Air pump can be disconnected and supplied with power and ground at pump to verify operation is possible. 4. Check valve on front right of cylinder head can be supplied with vacuum and visually checked for opening of valve. 5. Vacuum line from check valve to operating solenoid should also be inspected for cracks or being disconnected. Vacuum line follows right side of cylinder head to back of cylinder head to the secondary air solenoid located under left rear side of intake manifold. 6. The solenoid should allow vacuum flow to the check valve during vacuum pump operation. The solenoid is controlled directly by the engine control module and receives power during key-on-engine-off. Potential Causes: A.I.R. Check Valve Engine Control Module (ECM) Codes — Engine control module fault. Defective Secondary Air Pump Secondary Air Pump Relay Secondary Air Supply Hose Broken Vacuum Line Diagnostic Codes: P0491, P0492 Author: Robert Jacobs Average Reported Mileage: 69066

2000-2002 Toyota Corolla, Celica, MR2 Spyder, and ECHO DTC P1349 – VVTi ACTUATOR Repair Manual

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TC P1349 – VVTi ACTUATOR – EG009-03 May 19, 2003 Page 3 of 4 1. Inspect the condition of the valve cover oil baffle as per TSB EG007-02. If camshaft or camshaft position sensor damage resulting from a bent baffle is identified, repair the damage as necessary. 2. Make sure the vehicle is in “PARK” with the engine idling. 3. Referring to the screen flow below, connect the Toyota Diagnostic Tester to the vehicle and select the VVT Control Bank One Active Test (VVT CTRL B1) from the Active Test Menu. 1: DATA LIST 2: DTC INFO 3: 4: SNAPSHOT 5: SYSTEM CHECK 6: RESET MEMORY 7: MONITOR INFO 8: CHECK MODE SELECT DATA B DIAGNOSTIC MENU ENGINE A C INJ VOL A/F CONTROL CAN CTRL VSV TANK BYPASS VSV EVAP VSV (ALONE) A/C MAG CLUTCH FUEL PUMP/SPD LINE PRESS UP VVT CTRL B1 Confirm that the Vehicle is Stopped And Engine Idling 3: ACTIVE TEST PRESS [ENTER] INJECTOR 3.5ms IGN ADVANCE 11.0deg CALC LOAD 22% MAF 3.68gm/s ENGINE SPD 684rpm COOLANT TEMP186.8F INTAKE AIR 129.2F THROTTLE POS 14% CTP SW ON VEHICLE SPEED0MPH O2S B1S2 0.82V AFS B1 S1 3.25V SHORT FT #1 1.5% LONG FT #1 5.4% TOTAL FT #1 1.08 E D VVT CTRL B1 OFF INJECTOR 8.3ms IGN ADVANCE 5.0deg CALC LOAD 0% MAF 0.00gm/s ENGINE SPD 0rpm COOLANT TEMP186.8F INTAKE AIR 129.2F THROTTLE POS 14% CTP SW ON VEHICLE SPEED0MPH O2S B1S2 0.33V AFS B1 S1 3.29V SHORT FT #1 -0.1% LONG FT #1 5.4% TOTAL FT #1 1.08 VVT CTRL B1 ON 4. Using the right arrow key, toggle the VVTi actuator “ON.” 5. If at this point the vehicle does not run rough and/or stalls when the active test is performed, proceed with Repair Manual P1349 VVTi Fault Isolation Procedure (FIP). If the vehicle does stall and/or runs rough, this indicates the the VVTi control system is operating. Proceed to replace the VVTi actuator following the repair procedures listed on the Technical Information System (TIS): Engine Mechanical Section, Camshaft, Replacement The camshaft timing gear should come in the unlocked position from the factory. If it is difficult to install the camshaft timing gear, the lock pin may be engaged. To disengage the lock pin, apply and hold approximately 20 psi of air pressure at the oil feed hole located 90 degrees clockwise of the oval slot. (See Figure 1.) Once the pin has released, turn the interior assembly counterclockwise. (See black arrow in Figure 1.) B. Put the camshaft timing gear assembly and the camshaft together with the straight pin off the key groove. C. Turn the camshaft timing gear assembly (as shown in Figure 2) while pushing it lightly against the camshaft. Push further at the position where the pin fits into the groove. NOTE: Be sure not to turn the camshaft timing gear to the retard angle side (in the clockwise direction). D. Check that there is no clearance between the end of the camshaft and the camshaft timing gear. E. Tighten the camshaft bolt with the camshaft timing gear fixed. Torque: 54 Nm (551 kgfcm, 40 ftlbf) F. Check that the camshaft timing gear assembly can move to either side and is not locked

2002 Mercury Sable V6-3.0L VIN 2 Flex Fuel Repair Manual

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Automatic Transmission/Transaxle Tune-Up B 0.0 1.5 Notes Includes: R&R Trans Pan, Service Filter And Make All Necessary Adjustments. Diagnose/Test AX4N/4F50N Oil Leak, Diagnosis B 0.0 0.5 Notes Includes: Clean And Dry Outside Of Case And Operating Unit To Determine Point Of Leakage. Transaxle, Diagnosis A 0.0 1.8 Notes Includes: Time To Hook-Up And Disconnect Test Equipment. Checking System For Fault Codes, Road Test And Hydraulic Pressure Test As Required. AXOD-E, AX4S Oil Leak, Diagnosis B 0.0 0.5 Notes Includes: Clean And Dry Outside Of Case And Operating Unit To Determine Point Of Leakage. Transaxle, Diagnosis A 0.0 1.8 Notes Includes: Time To Hook-Up And Disconnect Test Equipment. Checking System For Fault Codes, Road Test And Hydraulic Pressure Test As Required. Replace AX4N/4F50N Complete Assembly Without Transfer Of Parts B 5.0 7.3 Notes NOTE To R&R Driveplate, Add B 0.0 0.2 Notes To R&R Torque

1996 Pontiac Grand Am DTC P0502 Vehicle Speed Sensor (VSS) Circuit Low Input (3.1L VIN M) Service Manual

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Action Taken When the DTC Sets Conditions for Clearing the MIL/DTC Diagnostic Aids Test Description The numbers below refer to the step numbers on the diagnostic table. 2. This step verifies that the PCM is receiving a signal from the vehicle speed sensor. 3. This step verifies that there are no opens in the circuitry from the vehicle speed sensor to the PCM connector. 7. This step performs a resistance test on the VSS circuits from the PCM connector. • The transmission defaults to 3rd gear. • The PCM inhibits TCC operation. • The PCM illuminates the Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL). • The PCM turns OFF the MIL after three consecutive ignition cycles without a failure reported. • A scan tool can clear the DTC from the PCM history. The PCM clears the DTC from the PCM history if the vehicle completes 40 warm-up cycles without a failure reported. • The PCM cancels the DTC default actions when the fault no longer exists and the ignition is OFF long enough in order to power down the PCM. • Check for PRNDL DTC P0705. DTC P0705 affects transmission operation. This may set DTC P0502 falsely. • Check for Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) in circuits 400 and 401. EMI may be induced if the harness is routed along the spark plug wires. • Inspect the wiring for poor electrical connections at the PCM. Inspect the wiring at the TCC brake switch. Look for the following conditions: – A bent terminal – A backed out terminal – A damaged terminal – Poor terminal tension – A chafed wire – A broken wire inside the insulation • When diagnosing for an intermittent short or open condition, massage the wiring harness while watching the test equipment for a change. • Ensure that the VSS is securely tightened to the case extension. DTC P0502 Vehicle Speed Sensor Circuit (VSS) Low Input